The tribunal

Close-up view of the judges' bench at the International Military Tribunal (IMT) in 1945/46. President Sir Geoffrey Lawrence is seated at center. Photo credit: National Archives, College Park, MD, USA

The Judges

Each nation appointed one primary judge and one alternate.

U.S.
Francis Biddle (primary judge)
John J. Parker (alternate judge)

Great Britain
Sir Geoffrey Lawrence (primary judge and President of the IMT in Nuremberg)
Norman Birkett (alternate judge)

France
Henri Donnedieu de Vabres (primary judge)
Robert Falco (alternate judge)

USSR
Iona T. Nikitschenko (primary judge)
Alexander F. Voltschkow (alternate judge)

Prosecutors

Each of the four victorious Allies appointed its own prosecution counsel for the Nuremberg Trial. The Chief Prosecutors were:

  • U.S.: Robert H. Jackson
  • Great Britain: Sir Hartley Shawcross
  • France: François de Menthon/Auguste Champetier de Ribes (ab Januar 1946)
  • USSR: Roman A. Rudenko

Among the prosecution attorneys, Robert H. Jackson played a special role because he was deeply involved in the organization and design of the proceedings before the trial commenced.